Adafruit CircuitPython API Reference¶
Welcome to the API reference documentation for Adafruit CircuitPython. This contains low-level API reference docs which may link out to separate “getting started” guides. Adafruit has many excellent tutorials available through the Adafruit Learning System.
CircuitPython is an education friendly open source derivative of MicroPython. CircuitPython supports use on educational development boards designed and sold by Adafruit. Adafruit CircuitPython features unified Python core APIs and a growing list of Adafruit libraries and drivers of that work with it.
This project is stable. Most APIs should be stable going forward. Those that change will change on major version numbers such as 2.0.0 and 3.0.0.
Designed for CircuitPython¶
- Adafruit CircuitPlayground Express (CircuitPython Guide)
- Adafruit Feather M0 Express (CircuitPython Guide)
- Adafruit Metro M0 Express (CircuitPython Guide)
- Adafruit Gemma M0 (CircuitPython Guide)
- Adafruit ItsyBitsy M0 Express (CircuitPython Guide)
- Adafruit Trinket M0 (CircuitPython Guide)
- Adafruit Metro M4 (CircuitPython Guide)
Guides and videos are available through the Adafruit Learning System under the CircuitPython category and MicroPython category. An API reference is also available on Read the Docs. A collection of awesome resources can be found at Awesome CircuitPython.
Specifically useful documentation when starting out:
See CONTRIBUTING.md for full guidelines but please be aware that by contributing to this project you are agreeing to the Code of Conduct. Contributors who follow the Code of Conduct are welcome to submit pull requests and they will be promptly reviewed by project admins. Please join the Discord too.
Differences from MicroPython¶
- includes a ports for MicroChip SAMD21 (Commonly known as M0 in Adafruit product names) and SAMD51 (M4).
- supports only SAMD21, SAMD51, and ESP8266 ports. An nRF port is under development.
- tracks MicroPython’s releases (not master).
- Longints (arbitrary-length integers) are enabled for most M0 Express boards (those boards with SPI flash chips external to the microcontroller), and for all M4 builds. Longints are disabled on other boards due to lack of flash space.
- The order that files are run and the state that is shared between them. CircuitPython’s goal is to clarify the role of each file and make each file independent from each other.
settings.py) runs only once on start up before USB is initialized. This lays the ground work for configuring USB at startup rather than it being fixed. Since serial is not available, output is written to
main.py) is run after every reload until it finishes or is interrupted. After it is done running, the vm and hardware is reinitialized. This means you cannot read state from ``code.py`` in the REPL anymore. CircuitPython’s goal for this change includes reduce confusion about pins and memory being used.
code.pythe REPL can be entered by pressing any key. It no longer shares state with
code.pyso it is a fresh vm.
- Autoreload state will be maintained across reload.
- Adds a safe mode that does not run user code after a hard crash or brown out. The hope is that this will make it easier to fix code that causes nasty crashes by making it available through mass storage after the crash. A reset (the button) is needed after its fixed to get back into normal mode.
- No module aliasing. (
utimeare not available as
randomare CPython compatible.
storagemodule which manages file system mounts. (Functionality from
- Modules with a CPython counterpart, such as
random, are strict subsets of their CPython version. Therefore, code from CircuitPython is runnable on CPython but not necessarily the reverse.
- tick count is available as time.monotonic()
- RGB status LED
- Auto-reload after file write over mass storage. (Disable with
- Wait state after boot and main run, before REPL.
- Main is one of these:
- Boot is one of these:
Here is an overview of the top-level source code directories.
The core code of MicroPython is shared amongst ports including CircuitPython:
docsHigh level user documentation in Sphinx reStructuredText format.
driversExternal device drivers written in Python.
examplesA few example Python scripts.
extmodShared C code used in multiple ports’ modules.
libShared core C code including externally developed libraries such as FATFS.
logoThe MicroPython logo.
mpy-crossA cross compiler that converts Python files to byte code prior to being run in MicroPython. Useful for reducing library size.
pyCore Python implementation, including compiler, runtime, and core library.
shared-bindingsShared definition of Python modules, their docs and backing C APIs. Ports must implement the C API to support the corresponding module.
shared-moduleShared implementation of Python modules that may be based on
testsTest framework and test scripts.
toolsVarious tools, including the pyboard.py module.
Ports include the code unique to a microcontroller line and also variations based on the board.
atmel-samdSupport for SAMD21 based boards such as Arduino Zero, Adafruit Feather M0 Basic, and Adafruit Feather M0 Bluefruit LE.
bare-armA bare minimum version of MicroPython for ARM MCUs.
cc3200Support for boards based CC3200 from TI such as the WiPy 1.0.
esp8266Support for boards based on ESP8266 WiFi modules such as the Adafruit Feather HUZZAH.
minimalA minimal MicroPython port. Start with this if you want to port MicroPython to another microcontroller.
pic16bitSupport for 16-bit PIC microcontrollers.
qemu-armSupport for ARM emulation through QEMU.
stmhalSupport for boards based on STM32 microcontrollers including the MicroPython flagship PyBoard.
teensySupport for the Teensy line of boards such as the Teensy 3.1.
unixSupport for UNIX.
windowsSupport for Windows.
zephyrSupport for Zephyr, a real-time operating system by the Linux Foundation.
CircuitPython only maintains the
The rest are here to maintain compatibility with the
Full Table of Contents¶
- Core Modules
- Support Matrix
_stage— C-level helpers for animation of sprites on a stage
analogio— Analog hardware support
audiobusio— Support for audio input and output over digital bus
audioio— Support for audio input and output
bitbangio— Digital protocols implemented by the CPU
board— Board specific pin names
busio— Hardware accelerated behavior
digitalio— Basic digital pin support
gamepad— Button handling
math— mathematical functions
microcontroller— Pin references and cpu functionality
multiterminal— Manage additional terminal sources
neopixel_write— Low-level neopixel implementation
nvm— Non-volatile memory
os— functions that an OS normally provides
pulseio— Support for pulse based protocols
random— psuedo-random numbers and choices
rotaryio— Support for reading rotation sensors
rtc— Real Time Clock
storage— storage management
struct— manipulation of c-style data
supervisor— Supervisor settings
time— time and timing related functions
touchio— Touch related IO
uheap— Heap size analysis
usb_hid— USB Human Interface Device
ustack— Stack information and analysis
help()- Built-in method to provide helpful information
- Supported Ports
- MicroPython port to ESP8266
- CircuitPython Port To The Nordic Semiconductor nRF52 Series
- Additional Adafruit Libraries and Drivers on GitHub
- Board-specific Helpers
- Helper Libraries
- Real-time clocks
- Motion Sensors
- ADXL34x 3 Axis Accelerometer
- BNO055 Accelerometer, Magnetometer, Gyroscope and Absolution Orientation
- FXAS21002C Gyroscope
- FXOS8700 Accelerometer
- GPS Global Position
- LIS3DH Accelerometer
- LSM303 Accelerometer and Magnetometer
- LSM9DS0 Accelerometer, Magnetometer, Gyroscope and Temperature
- LSM9DS1 Accelerometer, Magnetometer, Gyroscope and Temperature
- MLX90390 3 Axis Mangetometer
- MMA8451 3 axis accelerometer
- Environmental Sensors
- AM2320 Temperature and Humidity
- BME280 Temperature, Humidity and Pressure
- BME680 Temperature, Humidity, Pressure and Gas
- BMP280 Barometric Pressure and Altitude
- BMP3xx Barometric Pressure and Altimeter
- CCS811 Air Quality
- DHT Temperature and Humidity
- DS18x20 Temperature
- HTU21D Temperature and Humidity
- MAX31865 Thermocouple Amplifier, Temperature
- MAX31855 Thermocouple Amplifier, Temperature
- MAX31856 Thermocouple Amplifier, Temperature
- MCP9808 Temperature
- MP115A2 Barometric Pressure, Temperature
- MPL3115A2 Barometric Pressure, Altitude and Temperature Sensor
- MPRLS Ported Absolute Pressure
- SGP30 Air Quality
- SHT31-D Temperature and Humidity
- Si7021 Temperature and Humidity
- Thermistor Temperature
- Light Sensors
- Distance Sensors
- IO Expansion
- Adafruit SeeSaw
- ADS1x15 Analog-to-Digital Converter
- Crickit Robotics Boards
- DS2413 OneWire GPIO Expander
- FocalTech Capacitive Touch
- MCP230xx GPIO Expander
- MCP4725 Digital-to-Analog Converter
- PCA9685 16 x 12-bit PWM Driver
- TLC5947 24 x 12-bit PWM Driver
- TLC59711 12 x 16-bit PWM Driver
- MPR121 Capacitive Touch Sensor
- CAP1188 8-Key Capacitive Touch
- Si4713 Stereo FM Transmitter
- AMG88xx Grid-Eye IR Camera
- Trellis 4x4 Keypad
- NeoTrellis 4x4 Keypad
- NeoTrellis M4 4x8 Keypad
- DRV2605 Haptic Motor Controller
- MAX9744 Audio Amplifier
- Si5351 Clock Generator
- Thermal Printer
- VC0706 TTL Camera
- INA219 High Side Current
- VS1053 Audio Codec
- FRAM Non-Volatile Memory