Source code for adafruit_hcsr04

# SPDX-FileCopyrightText: 2017 Mike Mabey
# SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT


A CircuitPython library for the HC-SR04 ultrasonic range sensor.

The HC-SR04 functions by sending an ultrasonic signal, which is reflected by
many materials, and then sensing when the signal returns to the sensor. Knowing
that sound travels through dry air at `343.2 meters per second (at 20 °C)
<>`_, it's pretty straightforward
to calculate how far away the object is by timing how long the signal took to
go round-trip and do some simple arithmetic, which is handled for you by this

.. warning::

    The HC-SR04 uses 5V logic, so you will have to use a `level shifter
    <>`_ or simple
    voltage divider between it and your CircuitPython board (which uses 3.3V logic)

* Authors:

  - Mike Mabey
  - Jerry Needell - modified to add timeout while waiting for echo (2/26/2018)
  - ladyada - compatible with `distance` property standard, renaming, Pi compat

import time
from digitalio import DigitalInOut, Direction

    from pulseio import PulseIn

    _USE_PULSEIO = True
except ImportError:
    pass  # This is OK, we'll try to bitbang it!

__version__ = "0.0.0-auto.0"
__repo__ = ""

[docs]class HCSR04: """Control a HC-SR04 ultrasonic range sensor. Example use: :: import time import board import adafruit_hcsr04 sonar = adafruit_hcsr04.HCSR04(trigger_pin=board.D2, echo_pin=board.D3) while True: try: print((sonar.distance,)) except RuntimeError: print("Retrying!") pass time.sleep(0.1) """ def __init__(self, trigger_pin, echo_pin, *, timeout=0.1): """ :param trigger_pin: The pin on the microcontroller that's connected to the ``Trig`` pin on the HC-SR04. :type trig_pin: microcontroller.Pin :param echo_pin: The pin on the microcontroller that's connected to the ``Echo`` pin on the HC-SR04. :type echo_pin: microcontroller.Pin :param float timeout: Max seconds to wait for a response from the sensor before assuming it isn't going to answer. Should *not* be set to less than 0.05 seconds! """ self._timeout = timeout self._trig = DigitalInOut(trigger_pin) self._trig.direction = Direction.OUTPUT if _USE_PULSEIO: self._echo = PulseIn(echo_pin) self._echo.pause() self._echo.clear() else: self._echo = DigitalInOut(echo_pin) self._echo.direction = Direction.INPUT def __enter__(self): """Allows for use in context managers.""" return self def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb): """Automatically de-initialize after a context manager.""" self.deinit()
[docs] def deinit(self): """De-initialize the trigger and echo pins.""" self._trig.deinit() self._echo.deinit()
@property def distance(self): """Return the distance measured by the sensor in cm. This is the function that will be called most often in user code. The distance is calculated by timing a pulse from the sensor, indicating how long between when the sensor sent out an ultrasonic signal and when it bounced back and was received again. If no signal is received, we'll throw a RuntimeError exception. This means either the sensor was moving too fast to be pointing in the right direction to pick up the ultrasonic signal when it bounced back (less likely), or the object off of which the signal bounced is too far away for the sensor to handle. In my experience, the sensor can detect objects over 460 cm away. :return: Distance in centimeters. :rtype: float """ return self._dist_two_wire() # at this time we only support 2-wire meausre def _dist_two_wire(self): if _USE_PULSEIO: self._echo.clear() # Discard any previous pulse values self._trig.value = True # Set trig high time.sleep(0.00001) # 10 micro seconds 10/1000/1000 self._trig.value = False # Set trig low pulselen = None timestamp = time.monotonic() if _USE_PULSEIO: self._echo.resume() while not self._echo: # Wait for a pulse if (time.monotonic() - timestamp) > self._timeout: self._echo.pause() raise RuntimeError("Timed out") self._echo.pause() pulselen = self._echo[0] else: # OK no hardware pulse support, we'll just do it by hand! # hang out while the pin is low while not self._echo.value: if time.monotonic() - timestamp > self._timeout: raise RuntimeError("Timed out") timestamp = time.monotonic() # track how long pin is high while self._echo.value: if time.monotonic() - timestamp > self._timeout: raise RuntimeError("Timed out") pulselen = time.monotonic() - timestamp pulselen *= 1000000 # convert to us to match pulseio if pulselen >= 65535: raise RuntimeError("Timed out") # positive pulse time, in seconds, times 340 meters/sec, then # divided by 2 gives meters. Multiply by 100 for cm # 1/1000000 s/us * 340 m/s * 100 cm/m * 2 = 0.017 return pulselen * 0.017