usb_hid – USB Human Interface Device

The usb_hid module allows you to output data as a HID device.

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usb_hid.devices :Tuple[Device, Ellipsis]

Tuple of all active HID device interfaces. The default set of devices is Device.KEYBOARD, Device.MOUSE, Device.CONSUMER_CONTROL, On boards where usb_hid is disabled by default, devices is an empty tuple.

usb_hid.disable()None

Do not present any USB HID devices to the host computer. Can be called in boot.py, before USB is connected. The HID composite device is normally enabled by default, but on some boards with limited endpoints, including STM32F4, it is disabled by default. You must turn off another USB device such as usb_cdc or storage to free up endpoints for use by usb_hid.

usb_hid.enable(devices: Optional[Sequence[Device]])None

Specify which USB HID devices that will be available. Can be called in boot.py, before USB is connected.

Parameters

devices (Sequence) – Device objects. If devices is empty, HID is disabled. The order of the Devices may matter to the host. For instance, for MacOS, put the mouse device before any Gamepad or Digitizer HID device or else it will not work.

If you enable too many devices at once, you will run out of USB endpoints. The number of available endpoints varies by microcontroller. CircuitPython will go into safe mode after running boot.py to inform you if not enough endpoints are available.

class usb_hid.Device(*, descriptor: _typing.ReadableBuffer, usage_page: int, usage: int, report_ids: Sequence[int], in_report_lengths: Sequence[int], out_report_lengths: Sequence[int])

HID Device specification

Create a description of a USB HID device. The actual device is created when you pass a Device to usb_hid.enable().

Parameters
  • report_descriptor (ReadableBuffer) – The USB HID Report descriptor bytes. The descriptor is not not verified for correctness; it is up to you to make sure it is not malformed.

  • usage_page (int) – The Usage Page value from the descriptor. Must match what is in the descriptor.

  • usage (int) – The Usage value from the descriptor. Must match what is in the descriptor.

  • report_ids (Sequence[int]) – Sequence of report ids used by the descriptor. If the report_descriptor does not specify any report IDs, use (0,).

  • in_report_lengths (Sequence[int]) – Sequence of sizes in bytes of the HID reports sent to the host. The sizes are in order of the report_ids. Use a size of 0 for a report that is not an IN report. “IN” is with respect to the host.

  • out_report_lengths (int) – Sequence of sizes in bytes of the HID reports received from the host. The sizes are in order of the report_ids. Use a size of 0 for a report that is not an OUT report. “OUT” is with respect to the host.

report_ids, in_report_lengths, and out_report_lengths must all be the same length.

Here is an example of a Device with a descriptor that specifies two report IDs, 3 and 4. Report ID 3 sends an IN report of length 5, and receives an OUT report of length 6. Report ID 4 sends an IN report of length 2, and does not receive an OUT report:

device = usb_hid.Device(
    descriptor=b"...",         # Omitted for brevity.
    report_ids=(3, 4),
    in_report_lengths=(5, 2),
    out_report_lengths=(6, 0),
)
KEYBOARD :Device

Standard keyboard device supporting keycodes 0x00-0xDD, modifiers 0xE-0xE7, and five LED indicators. Uses Report ID 1 for its IN and OUT reports.

MOUSE :Device

Standard mouse device supporting five mouse buttons, X and Y relative movements from -127 to 127 in each report, and a relative mouse wheel change from -127 to 127 in each report. Uses Report ID 2 for its IN report.

CONSUMER_CONTROL :Device

Consumer Control device supporting sent values from 1-652, with no rollover. Uses Report ID 3 for its IN report.

last_received_report :bytes

The HID OUT report as a bytes (read-only). None if nothing received. Same as get_last_received_report() with no argument.

Deprecated: will be removed in CircutPython 8.0.0. Use get_last_received_report() instead.

usage_page :int

The device usage page identifier, which designates a category of device. (read-only)

usage :int

The device usage identifier, which designates a specific kind of device. (read-only)

For example, Keyboard is 0x06 within the generic desktop usage page 0x01. Mouse is 0x02 within the same usage page.

send_report(self, buf: _typing.ReadableBuffer, report_id: Optional[int] = None)None

Send an HID report. If the device descriptor specifies zero or one report id’s, you can supply None (the default) as the value of report_id. Otherwise you must specify which report id to use when sending the report.

get_last_received_report(self, report_id: Optional[int] = None)bytes

Get the last received HID OUT report for the given report ID. The report ID may be omitted if there is no report ID, or only one report ID. Return None if nothing received.